A mastery allows you to learn techniques of that nature. At level 10, you may pick your first Mastery. Subsequently, at level 50, you may pick your second.
There are 5 elemental masteries and 3 non-elemental masteries, out of these 8 masteries 3 have a village restricted second path.
Each mastery has strengths and weaknesses.
Fire Elemental Mastery allows the ninja to learn Fire techniques that allow ninjas to dish out large amounts of damage to multiple ninjas.
Wind Elemental Mastery allows the ninja to learn Wind Techniques that are sharp, fast and deadly.
Lightning Elemental Mastery allows the ninja to learn Lightning Techniques that are high in damage and immobilizing.
Earth Elemental Mastery allows the ninja to learn Earth Techniques that have large area of effect and effectively control crowds.
Water elemental Mastery allows the ninja to learn Water Techniques. Water is a very balanced nature and as such can be useful in many situations.
Medical Mastery allows the ninja to learn Medical Techniques such as healing and reviving fainted ninjas, as well as harness the deadliness of poison.
Taijutsu Mastery allows the ninja to master hand-to-hand combat and learn Taijutsu Techniques, taking physical limitations to a new level.
Village restricted secondary paths for masteries